About the difference between pattern steel and folding pattern steel
Patterned steel: steel with patterns used to make precious objects such as Japanese swords and Chinese swords. It was also called "flower iron" and "wentie" in ancient China. According to different classification methods, it can be divided into many categories. For example, according to the process principle, it can be divided into crystalline pattern steel and cast pattern steel. The pattern of pattern steel is like flowing water, like colorful clouds, or like chrysanthemums, or like wood grain. "Damascus steel" referred to by Europeans, "Blatte steel" referred to by Russians, and the iron that was introduced to China from Persia and Kashmir (now Kashmir) in ancient times are all pattern steels. The record of pattern steel in ancient China began in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and can be seen in the Tang, Song, Ming and Qing Dynasties. Many katana, wakizashi and tanto are now made of patterned steel.
Patterned blades have beautiful textures after being finely ground, but they are not the same. The surface patterns of the blades can be divided into two categories: one is the flowing water pattern, which can be divided into wavy and swirl patterns; the second is the cloud pattern , It can be divided into curling moire (like clouds and mist rolling in the sky) and floating moire (like clouds on a clear sky, rare). Cloud patterns are the most difficult to cast.
In the pattern blade, in order to reflect the effect of the pattern, the pattern is also divided into two types, namely the female pattern and the male pattern. The negative pattern is mainly relied on manual rough grinding, middle grinding, fine grinding and ultra-fine grinding to lightly reveal the folded pattern. It is necessary to use a magnifying glass to observe the whole picture. Yang pattern is a special formula for cleaning the blade body with a very dilute solution of mild acid after fine grinding. Its texture is black and white. Compared with the looming, light and elegant shade of the pattern, it can be said to be suitable for both intensity and light, each with its own characteristics. A real patterned blade made by folding multiple layers of steel, in addition to the beautiful pattern on the surface, the blade is also very tough, and the blade is very finely serrated, so it is easy to cut soft objects, and it is smoother to drag the knife. . If you want to pursue perfection again, you can use medium-carbon steel as the core, with folded steel sandwiched between the upper and lower sides, and a little white medium-carbon steel is exposed on both sides. Rigid and soft.
Folding pattern steel should originate from the manufacture of bronze weapons in the Bronze Age. Because the cast bronze weapon has low hardness, but after forging, its hardness can be increased several times to reach the hardness of a steel knife. Therefore, when the ancients invented the iron smelting operation, the same forging technology should be used to manufacture it. Sword. But at the beginning, the reason why the ancients used the folding forging method to make swords was not to obtain beautiful patterns, but to forge the impurities in the steel to improve the quality of the sword. Later, with the advancement of technology, the ancients Gradually mastered the use of different forging methods, you can obtain the technology of different patterns, so that the pattern steel blade technology has been developed and perfected, which is later called the "100 steelmaking" technology.
There are many records about patterned steel swords in ancient China, probably referring to folded patterned steel. As recorded in "The Book of Yue Jue", the three swords of Longyuan, Tai'a, and Gongbu made by Qianjiang and Ou Yezi: "To know Longyuan, look at it like climbing a mountain and facing the abyss; if you want to know Tai'a, look at it (gourd) The lofty wings are like waves of running water; if you want to know the work cloth, (gourd) starts from the text and ends at the ridge, like a bead and cannot be pierced, and the text is like flowing water. "The so-called (gourd) refers to the pattern of the sword body, and the mountain , Abyss and flowing water refer to the shape of the pattern.
The sword is five feet long and the handle is seven inches long. (The size in ancient times is different from that of the present. I don't know how to convert it) The scabbard is gilded, and the hilt is inlaid with jade. Shen Kuo pulled the sword out of the sheath, and the glaucoma was dazzling, and the cold was invading. Attracted a large number of onlookers.
Shen Kuo asked to try the sword, and Wen Shao readily agreed. Ten one-inch-long iron nails as thick as chopsticks were taken. The "1"-shaped nails were nailed to a wooden post. Wen Shao's sword was swung away, and there was a soft sound. Ten iron nails broke off at the sound. Shen Kuo was overjoyed. When he took the Benlong Sword and inspected it carefully, he saw that the blade was intact, and there was no trace of iron cut. He couldn't help but praise him. Wen Shao was very proud and said, "More Look." The right hand gripped the hilt of the sword, the left hand held the tip of the sword, and pulled it hard, the five-foot long sword turned into a ring. When it was released again, there was a sound of "clang", and the long sword returned to its original state. Shen Kuo was amazed.
It’s a pity that the secret of making the Dragon Sword has been lost since the beginning of the Song Dynasty. It was a time official and nobleman who was actually proud of having a Japanese sword from the Japanese Kingdom. Although Song Ting had refurbished the weapon system, Many unprecedented weapons have been released, but the forging method of the dragon sword has not been able to reproduce, and people can't help but sigh.
In modern times, the multi-layer folding pattern steel for swords and its manufacturing method is mainly made of semi-hard steel and hard steel overlapped forging, and then folded or twisted many times, and finally a layer of spring steel is clamped to form pattern Multi-layer folded pattern steel. The modern iron and steel industry is much more developed than in ancient times, so there are all kinds of industrial steel materials with various elements and various properties evenly distributed to reach the corresponding indicators. From a performance point of view, ordinary pattern steel is meaningless.
Nowadays, Japanese swords are made. As for the material, the swordsmith still uses traditional "jade steel", forging and grinding with traditional methods. This pattern (called kobuse in Japan) is not simply from the point of view of performance. It is more from the perspective of protection. From the perspective of inheriting history and culture, the Japanese sword is treated as an art craft.